When you go down to the woods today, you're sure of a big surprise. The treescape of Earth has changed throughout history. What once was forest is now city, and where ancient woodland stretched as far as the eye could see now lies green pasture and crop. In this edition of the environmental SCIENTIST, we walk deeper into the forest to investigate the role trees play in our environment, what potential solutions they may provide in managing the urban environment, and how the UK is increasing its forest cover sustainably. Read about the history of woodland management, why we should value our oldest trees, the impact of disease and how tree planting is inspiring development worldwide.